Woodfuels continue to play a very significant role in Ghana’s energy mix. Woodfuels constitute nearly 60% of the primary energy demand making it the most sought after fuel in the country at the moment. Woodfuels constitute about 80% of the energy demand for cooking. In rural areas the demand for woodfuels can be as high as 90% in some cases. Though government efforts are jeered towards reducing the percentage of woodfuels consumption in the country, dependence on this fuel type is likely to remain high because;
· It is cheap
· Readily available
· Does not require expensive technology to utilize it, unlike other fuel types
Though in part woodfuels are renewable, overdependence on this fuel type has resulted in a myriad of problems. Presently, Ghana’s deforestation rate stands at about 2.6% per annum. This is a direct result of indiscriminate felling of trees for fuel. Going by this rate, Ghana is likely to lose its forest cover soon. Aside this, the use of traditional woodfuels cookstoves comes with its own attendant problems. Traditional woodfuels cookstoves have been identified as one of the major causes of indoor air pollution because if its poor design. Health wise, indoor air pollution is known to kill about 1.6 million people annually. In Ghana respiratory diseases as a result of indoor air pollution are the second most reported health related cases in hospitals and clinics. Regarding the environment, due to the poor engineering design;
· More fuel is consumed because of the low thermal efficiency
· Carbon dioxide and carbon mono-oxide emissions are higher
Addressing the design deficiency of the cookstoves tend to solve many of the identified problems. For instance when the efficiency of the stove is improved, fuel consumption goes down resulting in less amount of wood being felled. Also, there will be reduction in particulate matter and greenhouse gases emission. Envirofit International has been at the forefront of the design and manufacture of efficient cookstoves. Presently they have the most energy efficient charcoal stove on the market.
Under this first CPA jointly implemented by CEESD and Envirofit International, about 6,000 efficient charcoal cookstoves will be distributed in 2 selected districts in the Ashanti Region. The successful implementation of this first programme will lead to the registration of the PoA with UNFCCC.
A Local Stakeholders Consultation was held on 14th November, 2011 in Accra to solicit views from all stakeholders. Representatives from the DNA, civil society, EPA, relevant government agencies, representatives of the local people, local entrepreneurs of the people and journalist were present. Stakeholders were impressed and welcomed the introduction of the stoves into Ghana. The Envirofit CH2200 charcoal stove is capable of reducing fuel consumption by about 50% while significantly cutting down on greenhouse gas and particulate matter emission.
The team earlier met the DNA, the EPA, the Ministry of Energy and other stakeholders who all expressed optimism of the project to contribute to a reduction on the rate of forest degradation and deforestation in Ghana. The DNA, represented by Mr Peter Derry, extolled the implementer of the CPA, CEESD, for promoting CDM awareness creation and project development in Ghana.